Healthy Heart Reports
Cure And Prevention Of Heart Attacks
Myriad scientific papers show that heart attacks may be caused by infection with chlamydia and other
bacteria and viruses. Most main-stream heart specialists feel that infection with chlamydia can cause
heart attacks, but most doctors are afraid to prescribe new treatments. Most people who develop fatty
plaques in their arteries have been infected with chlamydia (25) and many people with arteriosclerotic
heart disease carry chlamydia in their mouths (26). I recommend a short course of doxycycline or
azithromycin to A) people and their sexual partners who have had heart attacks or strokes, or who are at
high risk for heart attacks because of extensive arteriosclerosis and B) have a positive antibody blood
test for chlamydia or mycoplasma. In one year, most physicians will do the same, but now most
physicians disagree with me even though studies show that antibiotics prevent heart attacks
Previous studies show that chlamydia is associated with (11,8) and has been found repeatedly in plaques
that form in arteries to cause heart attacks (1,2,13,20), high blood pressure (15) and strokes (16).
Antibodies combine with chlamydia to form immune complexes that convert the bad LDL cholesterol to
oxidized cholesterol to form plaques in arteries (3,4,5). People with high blood levels of C-reactive
protein, an indicator of infection, are the ones most likely to suffer heart attacks and strokes (19), and
aspirin reduces inflammation (29) caused by infection in the inner lining of arteries and prevents heart
attacks (6). People who have had heart attacks are more likely to die if they have high blood levels of C-reactive protein (12). Being infected with chlamydia is associated with increased risk for heart attacks
(21,23,25,31) and having chlamydia increases a heart attack victim's chances of suffering another heart
attack fourfold (7), presumably by increasing susceptibility to clotting (17). Treating with azithromycin,
an antibiotics that kills chlamydia, prevents second heart attacks (7). An antibiotic that kills chlamydia
helped relieve symptoms in people with angina chest pain (8). Herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus have
also been associated with heart attacks (22). To prevent heart attacks, eat a low fat, high-fiber diet and
treat chronic infections.
1) TC Moazed, CC Kuo, JT Grayston, LA Campbell. Murine models of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and
atherosclerosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 175: 4 (APR 1997):883-890.
2) JL Mehta, TGP Saldeen, K Rand. Interactive role of infection, inflammation and traditional risk factors in
atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 31: 6(MAY 1998):1217-1225.
3) T Watanabe, S Haraoka, T Shimokama. Inflammatory and immunological nature of atherosclerosis. International
Journal of Cardiology 54: Suppl. (AUG 1996):S51-S60.
4) RH Fryer, EP Schwobe, ML Woods, GM Rodgers. Chlamydia species infect human vascular endothelial cells and
induce procoagulant activity. Journal of Investigative Medicine 45: 4 (APR 1997):168-174.
5) RW Wissler, AL Roberts, JP Strong, JF Cornhill, and more than 55 others. Atheroarteritis: A combined immunological
and lipid imbalance. International Journal of Cardiology 54: Suppl.(AUG 1996):S37-S49. Address: RW Wissler, Univ
Chicago, Med Ctr, Dept Pathol, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
6) Ridker PM et al. Inflammation, aspirin and the risk of cadiovascular disease in apparently healthy men. NEJM
7) Gupta S et al. Circulation 1997;96:404-407. 8) Lancet August 9, 1997. Conclusions An increased anti-Cp antibody titre
may be a predictor for further adverse cardiovascular events in post-MI patients. Taking a short course of azithromycin
may lower this risk, possibly by acting against Cp. S Gupta, EW Leatham, D Carrington, MA Mendall, JC Kaski, AJ
Camm. Elevated Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies, cardiovascular events, and azithromycin in male survivors of
myocardial infarction. Circulation 96: 2 (JUL 15 1997):404-407.
8) M Maass, E Krause, PM Engel, S Kruger. Endovascular presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with
hemodynamically effective carotid artery stenosis. Angiology 48: 8 (AUG 1997):699-706.
9) S Wallbergjonsson, ML Ohman, SR Dahlqvist. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with seropositive
rheumatoid arthritis in northern Sweden. Journal of Rheumatology 24: 3 (MAR 1997):445- 451. Mortality and death due to
CVD and IHD were in both sexes increased in seropositive RA. Male sex and high age at disease onset predicted death and
10) N Osseigerning, P Moayyedi, S Smith, D Braunholtz, JI Wilson, ATR Axon, PJ Grant. Helicobacter pylori infection is
related to atheroma in patients undergoing coronaryangiography. Cardiovascular Research 35: 1 (JUL 1997):120-124.
11) F Blasi, R Cosentini, R Raccanelli, FM Massari, C Arosio, P Tarsia, L Allegra. A possible association of Chlamydia
pneumoniae infection and acute myocardial infarction in patients younger than 65 years of age. Chest 112: 2 (AUG
12) H Toss, B Lindahl, A Siegbahn, L Wallentin. Prognostic influence of increased fibrinogen and C-reactive protein levels
in unstable coronary artery disease. Circulation 96: 12 (DEC 16 1997):4204-4210.
13) S Mazzoli, N Tofani, A Fantini, F Semplici, F Bandini, A Salvi, R Vergassola. Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody
response in patients with acute myocardial infarction and their follow-up. American Heart Journal 135: 1 (JAN
14) JB Muhlestein, JL Anderson, EH Hammond, LP Zhao, S Trehan, EP Schwobe, JF Carlquist. Infection with Chlamydia
pneumoniae accelerates the development of atherosclerosis and treatment with azithromycin prevents it in a rabbit model.
Circulation 97: 7 (FEB 24 1998):633-636.
15) PJ Cook, D Honeybourne, GYH Lip, DG Beevers, R Wise, P Davies. Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody titers are
significantly associated with acute stroke and transient cerebral ischemia: The West Birmingham Stroke Project. Stroke 29:
2 (FEB 1998):404-410.
16) PJ Cook, GYH Lip, P Davies, DG Beevers, R Wise, D Honeybourne. Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in severe
essential hypertension. Hypertension 31: 2 (FEB 1998):589-594.
17) H Toss, J Gnarpe, H Gnarpe, A Siegbahn, B Lindahl, L Wallentin. Increased fibrinogen levels are associated with
persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in unstable coronary artery disease. European Heart Journal 19: 4 (APR
18) TC Quinn. Does Chlamydia pneumoniae cause coronary heart disease? Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11: 3
19) PM Ridker, RJ Glynn, CH Hennekens. C-Reactive protein adds to the predictive value of total and HDL cholesterol in
determining risk of first myocardial infarction. Circulation 97:
20 (MAY 26 1998):2007-2011. 20) M Maass. Persistence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in human atherosclerotic plaques
material - Evidence and consequences. Herz 23: 3 (MAY 1998):178-184.
21) W Stille, R Dittmann. Atherosclerosis as consequence of chronic infection by Chlamydia pneumoniae. Herz 23: 3
22) M Herzum, JR Schaefer, G Hufnagel, B Maisch. Cytomegalo- and herpesvirus in pathogenesis and progression of
native atherosclerosis and of restenosis after intervention. Herz 23: 3 (MAY 1998):193-196.
23) TC Quinn. Does Chlamydia pneumoniae cause coronary heart disease? Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11: 3
24) JL Anderson, JF Carlquist, JB Muhlestein, BD Horne, SP Elmer. Evaluation of C-reactive protein, an inflammatory
marker, and infectious serology as risk factors for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Journal of the
American College of Cardiology 32: 1(JUL 1998):35-41.
25) M Davidson, CC Kuo, JP Middaugh, LA Campbell, SP Wang, WP Newman, JC Finley, JT Grayston. Confirmed
previous infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) and its presence in early coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation 98:
7 (AUG 18 1998):628-633.
26) AS Gabriel, H Gnarpe, J Gnarpe, H Hallander, O Nyquist, A Martinsson. The prevalence of chronic Chlamydia
pneumoniae infection as detected by polymerase chain reaction in pharyngeal samples from patients with ischaemic heart
disease. European Heart Journal 19: 9 (SEP 1998):1321-1327. 2
27) L Capron, B Wyplosz. Infectious theory of atherosclerosis. Archives Des Maladies du Coeur et Des Vaisseaux 91: Sp.
Iss. 5 (OCT 1998):21-26. one virus (cytomegalovirus) and two bacteria (Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori)
28) E Gurfinkel, G Bozovich, E Beck, E Testa, B Livellara, B Mautner. Treatment with the antibiotic roxithromycin in
patients with acute non-Q-wave coronary syndromes - The final report of the ROXIS study. European Heart Journal 20: 2
(JAN 1999):121-127. prevents death and re-infarction for at least 6 months after initial treatment.
29) T Watanabe, JL Fan. Atherosclerosis and inflammation - Mononuclear cell recruitment and adhesion molecules with
reference to the implication of ICAM-1/LFA-1 pathway in atherogenesis. International Journal of Cardiology 66: Suppl.
1(OCT 1 1998):S45-S53. 30)I Abdelmouttaleb, N Danchin, C Ilardo, I Aimonegastin, M Angioi, A Lozniewski, J
Loubinoux, A Lefaou, JL Gueant. C-reactive protein and coronary artery disease: Additional evidence of the implication of
an Inflammatory process in acute coronary syndromes. American Heart Journal 137: 2 (FEB 1999):346-351.
30) P Jousilahti, V Salomaa, V Rasi, E Vahtera. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis, haemostatic factors, and coronary heart
disease risk. Atherosclerosis 142: 2 (FEB 1999):403-407.
31) LJ Murray, DPJ OReilly, GML Ong, C ONeill, AE Evans, KB Bamford. Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are
associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. Heart, 1999, Vol 81, Iss 3, pp 239-244.
32) G Bauriedel, U Welsch, JA Likungu, A Welz, B Luderitz.Chlamydia pneumoniae in coronary plaques: Increased
detection with acute coronary syndrome. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1999, Vol 124, Iss 13, pp 375-380.
33)LA Jackson, NL Smith, SR Heckbert, JT Grayston, DS Siscovick, BM Psaty. Lack of association between first
myocardial infarction and past use of erythromycin, tetracycline, or doxycycline.Emerging Infectious Diseases, 1999, Vol
5, Iss 2, pp 281-284.
34)AE Schussheim, V Fuster. Antibiotics for myocardial infarction? A possible role of infection in atherogenesis and acute
coronary syndromes. Drugs, 1999, Vol 57, Iss 3, pp 283-291.
35) R Sessa, M DiPietro, I Santino, M delPiano, A Varveri, A Dagianti, M Penco.Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and
atherosclerotic coronary disease.American Heart Journal, 1999, Vol 137, Iss 6, pp 1116-1119.
36)SS Carlisle, MC Nahata.Chlamydia pneumoniae and coronary heart disease.Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 1999, Vol 33,
Iss 5, pp 615-622.
37)S Tommasi, E Carluccio, M Bentivoglio, M Buccolieri, M Mariotti, M Politano, L Corea.C-reactive protein as a marker
for cardiac ischemic events in the year after a first, uncomplicated myocardial infarction.American Journal of Cardiology,
1999, Vol 83, Iss 12, pp 1595-1599 CRP implies increased risk fo dieing..
38)FJ Nieto, AR Folsom, PD Sorlie, JT Grayston, SP Wang, LE Chambless. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and incident
coronary heart disease - The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.American Journal of Epidemiology, 1999, Vol
150, Iss 2, pp 149-156.
39) Dechend, M Maass, J Gieffers, R Dietz, C Scheidereit, A Leutz, DC Gulba.Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of
vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells activates NF-kappa B and induces tissue factor and PAI-1 expression - A
potential link to accelerated arteriosclerosis.Circulation, 1999, Vol 100, Iss 13, pp 1369-1373.
Copyright 1999 www.DrMirkin.com
Dr. Mirkin's opinions and the references cited are for information only, and are not intended to diagnose or prescribe. For your specific diagnosis and treatment, consult your doctor or health care provider.
For more recipes, refer to the The Healthy Heart Miracle book.